Before television, the presidential election cycle was relatively brief. Campaigning would take place between the conventions (in the summer) and the election (that November). Primaries were held, but candidates wouldn't run full-fledged campaigns to win support. Instead, each state's party would send delegates to the national convention without consulting the public. At the convention, the delegates voted on the candidate they wanted to represent the party [source: Dover].
That all began to change in 1952, when the national party conventions were first televised. The thought was that covering the conventions would give the public a window into the way the parties made decisions. Few probably expected that the reverse would happen -- that the coverage would move the parties to change the way they ran conventions [source: Kaid]. Playing up to the cameras, conventions became a venue for party leaders and rising stars to make speeches, not places where actual decisions were made. Today, the convention is mostly an opportunity for the candidates to stage strong starts to the general election campaign. The voting that takes place at the conventions is mostly ceremonial [source: Dover].
As the conventions have become less important, the primaries have become more important. The news coverage of the campaign begins one, even two years before the first primary election is held, and two to three years before the general election. This has become especially pronounced as the 24-hour news networks have risen in popularity and have huge amounts of air time to fill. For example, as early as the summer of 2009, pollsters were already testing the waters for which candidates might win the election in 2012 [source: Rasmussen Reports].
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More Great Links
- CNN All Politics. "Presidential Debate History." 1996. (March 15, 2011)http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/debates/history/
- Donovan, Robert J. and Ray Scherer. "Unsilent Revolution: Television News and American Public Life." Cambridge University Press. 1992.
- Dover, E.D. "Images, Issues and Attacks: Television Advertising by Incumbents and Challengers in Presidential Elections." Lexington Books. 2006.
- Farnsworth, Stephen J. and S Robert Lichter. "The Mediated Presidency: Television News and Presidential Governance." Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc. 2006.
- Foote, Joe S. "Television Access and Political Power: The Networks, the Presidency, and the 'Loyal Opposition.'" Praeger Publishers. 1990.
- Hart, Roderick P. "U.S. Presidency & Television." The Museum of Broadcast Television.http://www.museum.tv/debateweb/html/equalizer/essay_usprestv.htm
- Johnston, Lauren. "Can Voters See Through Sham Ads?" CBS News. Aug. 6, 2004. (March 17, 2011)http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/08/06/opinion/lynch/main634587.shtml
- Kaid, Lynda Lee. "Political Processes and Television." The Museum of Broadcast Communications. (March 15, 2011)http://www.museum.tv/debateweb/html/equalizer/essay_polyprocesstv.htm
- Kraus, Sidney. "Televised Presidential Debates and Public Policy." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2000.
- NPR. "When TV Changed Politics: Adlai Stevenson vs. Ike." Oct. 15, 2008.http://www.npr.org/templates/player/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=95
- Patterson, Troy. "McCain on Letterman. America Loves a Good Reconciliation." Oct. 17, 2008. (March 17, 2011)http://www.slate.com/id/2202435/
- PBS. "The History of Presidential Debates: Before Television." Sept. 24, 2004.http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/debatehistory.html
- Purdum, Todd S. "It Came From Wasilla" Vanity Fair. August 2009. (March 16, 2011)http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2009/08/sarah-palin200908
- Rasmussen Reports. "2012 Match-ups: Obama, Romney Tied at 45%; Obama 48%, Palin 42%." July 20, 2009. (March 18, 2011)http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/elections/election_2012/2012_match_ups_obama_romney_tied_at_45_obama_48_palin_42
- Roberts, Joel. "Dean's Scream: Not What it Seemed." CBS News. Jan. 26, 2004. (March 17, 2011)http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/26/politics/main596021.shtml
- Smoller, Fredric T. "The Six O'clock Presidency." Praeger Publishers. 1990.
- Zurawik, David. "Bill Clinton's sax solo on 'Arsenio' still resonates." The Baltimore Sun. Dec. 27, 1992. (March 18, 2011)http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1992-12-27/features/1992362178_1_clinton-arsenio-hall-hall-show
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