Girls cheer for Mussolini in 1935

Fascism relies on not only on the people's fear, but on their enthusiasm as well. These girls cheer for Mussolini in 1935 after the end of their summer camp.

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Fascism History

Fascism was at its height between 1918 and 1945 -- the end of World War I through the end of World War II. Europe's general upheaval during that period left it receptive to fascist ideology. But there were differences between in the ideology's implementation. In Italy, for instance -- the home base of the Catholic Church -- complete rejection of organized religion was unwise. Mussolini claimed ties to the Catholic Church when it suited the State's best interests, and the Catholic Church was at times accused of being part of Fascist rule. Hitler occasionally proclaimed himself a protector of the Church. Yet he openly destroyed members of religious minorities -- most notably Jews but also Jehovah's Witnesses and others outside of the mainstream.

Another difference between the two most powerful fascist regimes in history was the primary driving force behind their respective military pursuits. While Mussolini focused on conquest primarily to show the strength of the State, Hitler made conquest more of a race issue. Hitler strove to unite the entire Aryan race, a supposed master race from northern European descent. This was a primary drive behind the invasion of neighboring countries like Austria. Hitler believed that Austrians were part of the Aryan race and should thus be part of the German State. With the Aryan race united under his rule, they could conquer the world.

In the end, Hitler failed. When the Axis powers, including Germany and Italy, lost World War II, their fascist regimes became widely viewed as evil. Fascism fell out of favor, inextricably tied to genocide and world war. After World War II, with economic upturns around the world, a sense of having defeated "the bad guys," and the Allies' tight control over defeated countries, the chaos that fascism relies on was mostly gone. Fascism in its original form never again got a strong enough foothold in any country to take control of the government.

But is fascism completely dead? What fascist ideals live on today as fringe movements? Read on to find out about neo-fascism.­