How Title IX Works


Lots More Information

Author's Note: How Title IX Works

Reading about the "Battle of the Sexes" reminded me just how fantastically crazy the '70s were. When you realize that David Bowie introduced the world to Ziggy Stardust in the same year that Title IX was signed into law, the spectacle of that famous tennis match suddenly makes sense. Billie Jean King on a golden throne (ornamented with flamingo feathers) carted out by bare-chested men to face Bobby Riggs in a rickshaw dragged by big-haired models in a contest that would help seal the deal on gender equity legislation ... the whole scene is of a piece with the era of cross-dressing glam rock stars.

Related Articles

More Great Links

Sources

  • Bolger, Dana and Alexandra Brodsky. "Betsy DeVos's Title IX interpretation is an attack on sexual assault survivors." The Washington Post. Sept. 8, 2017. (Sept. 14, 2017) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/posteverything/wp/2017/09/08/betsy-devoss-title-ix-interpretation-is-an-attack-on-sexual-assault-survivors/
  • Brodsky, Alexandra. "Can Restorative Justice Change the Way Schools Handle Sexual Assault?" The Nation. April 14, 2016. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://www.thenation.com/article/what-if-punishment-wasnt-the-only-way-to-handle-campus-sexual-assault/
  • Chan, Kristina. "The Mother of Title IX: Patsy Mink." Women's Sports Foundation. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/education/mother-title-ix-patsy-mink/
  • Chapin, Angelina. "Four decades after the Battle of the Sexes, the fight for equality goes on." The Guardian. Mar. 11, 2017. (Sept. 2017) https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2017/mar/11/billie-jean-king-battle-of-the-sexes-tennis
  • Clark, Phoebe and Ian Ayres. "The Chastain effect: Using Title IX to measure the causal effect of participating in high school sports on adult women's social lives." The Journal of Socio-Economics. Vol. 48, pgs. 62-71. Feb. 2014. (Sept. 25, 2017) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535713001455
  • Fagan, Kate and Luke Cyphers. "Five myths about Title IX." ESPN. April 29, 2012. (Sept. 26, 2017) http://www.espn.com/espnw/title-ix/article/7729603/five-myths-title-ix
  • Flanagan, Linda and Susan H. Greenberg. "How Title IX Hurts Female Athletes." The Atlantic. Feb. 27, 2012. (Sept. 14, 2017) https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2012/02/how-title-ix-hurts-female-athletes/253525/
  • Jacobs, Tom. "Has Title IX Changed Women's Lives? Pacific Standard. Jan. 8, 2014. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://psmag.com/social-justice/title-ix-changed-womens-lives-72452
  • Johnson, K.C. and Stuart Taylor. "The Path to Obama's 'Dear Colleague' Letter." The Washington Post. Jan. 31, 2017. (Sept. 14, 2017) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2017/01/31/the-path-to-obamas-dear-colleague-letter
  • Keierleber, Mark. "The Younger Victims of Sexual Violence in School." The Atlantic. Aug. 10, 2017. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2017/08/the-younger-victims-of-sexual-violence-in-school/536418/
  • Legal Information Institute. "Title (legislation)." Cornell Law School. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/title_legislation
  • National Women's Law Center. "Title IX and Men's 'Minor' Sports: A False Conflict." (Sept. 26, 2017) https://www.nwlc.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/Men's Minor Sports Final.pdf
  • National Women's Law Center. "Title IX Requires Schools to Address Sexual Violence." (Sept. 14, 2017) https://nwlc.org/resources/title-ix-requires-schools-to-address-sexual-violence/
  • Nixon, Richard. "Statement on Signing the Education Reform Act of 1972." June 23, 1972. (Sept. 26, 2017) http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=3473
  • Rothman, Lily. "How Title IX First Changed the World of Women's Sports." Time Magazine. June 23, 2017. (Sept. 25, 2017) http://time.com/4822600/title-ix-womens-sports/
  • Sommers, Christina Hoff. "Title IX: How a Good Law Went Terribly Wrong." Time. June 23, 2014. (Sept. 14, 2017) http://time.com/2912420/titleix-anniversary/
  • Suk Gersen, Jeannie. "Betsy Devos, Title IX, and the 'Both Sides' Approach to Sexual Assault." New Yorker. Sept. 8, 2017. (Sept. 14, 2017) https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/betsy-devos-title-ix-and-the-both-sides-approach-to-sexual-assault
  • The Associated Press. "A timeline of rulings, regulations about student sex assault." May 15, 2017. (Sept. 26, 2017) https://www.apnews.com/08e761d7c9e94e5383cbc2168acc8f2a
  • Thomas, Katie. "Colleges Cut Men's Programs to Satisfy Title IX." The New York Times. May 1, 2011. (Sept. 26, 2017) http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/02/sports/02gender.html?mcubz=3
  • U.S. Dept. of Justice. "Equal Access to Education: Forty Years of Title IX. June 23, 2012. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://www.justice.gov/crt/about/edu/documents/titleixreport.pdf
  • U.S. Dept. of Labor. "Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972." (Sept. 26, 2017) https://www.dol.gov/oasam/regs/statutes/titleix.htm
  • Women's Sports Foundation. "Title IX & Issues, History of Title IX." Sept. 13, 2011. (Sept. 20, 2017) https://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/advocate/title-ix-issues/history-title-ix/history-title-ix/
  • Women's Sports Foundation. "Title IX Myths and Facts." (Sept. 14, 2017) https://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/advocate/title-ix-issues/what-is-title-ix/title-ix-myths-facts/
  • U.S. House of Representatives. "Mink, Patsy Takemoto." History, Art & Archives. (Sept. 25, 2017) http://history.house.gov/People/detail/18329
  • Winslow, Barbara. "The Impact of Title IX." History Now, The Journal of the Gilder Lehrman Institute. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/seventies/essays/impact-title-ix
  • Yoffe, Emily. "The Uncomfortable Truth About Campus Rape Policy." The Atlantic. Sept. 6, 2017. (Sept. 25, 2017) https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2017/09/the-uncomfortable-truth-about-campus-rape-policy/538974/

More to Explore