Throughout much of history, solitary confinement was employed sparingly and for short periods of time. Today, however, inmates often languish in lockdown for years. And it's not just in the U.S. Many countries around the world toss those serving life sentences or on death row into restrictive housing, for example, where they may remain for decades. The practice is also often used excessively. Research from the Vera Institute of Justice found 85 percent of prisoners in solitary confinement in Illinois were there for incredibly minor rule infractions, such as abusive language [sources: Penal Reform, Solitary Watch].
But change is on the horizon. More people and groups are clamoring to end or severely limit the practice. Juan E. Méndez, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, presented a report to the UN's General Assembly in 2016 detailing solitary confinement practices around the world. The report noted a general trend toward reform.
In January 2016, then-President Obama announced the adoption of various recommendations by the U.S. Department of Justice to limit the use of solitary confinement in federal prisons, including ending such restrictive housing for kids, and allowing those in solitary to spend more hours outside of their cells [source: Ordway and Wihbey]. Some states and cities have also made changes. For instance, New York City has now banned solitary confinement for inmates under 21, or those who are physically or mentally disabled.
In England (as in many other European countries), solitary confinement is rarely used. Starting in the 1980s, British authorities determined that giving their most dangerous prisoners more control, rather than less, would avoid turning every encounter into a test of wills, which would lead to violence. So, prisoners were housed in stable units of 10 people rather than in individual cells and could they earn privileges such as more phone time and contact visits by good behavior. "The results have been impressive. The use of long-term isolation in England is now negligible," wrote Atul Gawande in a 2009 New Yorker article.
As to whether the U.S. will adopt similar strategies remains to be seen. At the Louisiana State Penitentiary — the one that held Albert Woodfox in solitary for more than four decades — George Gibson is living a similar fate. Gibson has been in lockdown since 1982, when as a teen he was part of an escape and abduction attempt with an older inmate. There are no plans for his release [sources: Solitary Watch, Cole].
Author's Note: How Solitary Confinement Works
Solitary confinement sounds tortuous to me. And I cannot fathom having to endure it for weeks, let alone years. Although I consider myself someone who is pretty strong mentally, I don't think I would make it. Plenty of research shows the practice is extremely harmful to inmates, plus costly to taxpayers, so it seems a no-brainer to severely restrict its use. Of course, that's just my opinion. And as we know from our country's recent presidential election, the country is full of people with very divergent views.
More Great Links
- Beck, Molly. "Wisconsin is one of few states to allow solitary stays for youths of more than 10 days." Wisconsin State Journal. Jan. 25, 2017. (Jan. 25, 2017) http://host.madison.com/wsj/news/local/govt-and-politics/wisconsin-one-of-few-states-to-allow-solitary-stays-for/article_6ecbb323-5a24-541b-87a5-843766a14a6b.html
- Breslow, Jason. "What Does Solitary Confinement Do To Your Mind?" PBS. April 22, 2014. (Jan. 14, 2017) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/what-does-solitary-confinement-do-to-your-mind/
- Cole, David. "Albert Woodfox And The Case Against Solitary Confinement." The New Yorker. Feb. 23, 2016. (Jan. 14, 2017) http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/albert-woodfox-and-the-case-against-solitary-confinement
- Connect Us. "13 Most Valid Pros and Cons of Solitary Confinement." (Jan. 25, 2017) http://connectusfund.org/13-most-valid-pros-and-cons-of-solitary-confinement
- Infographic World. "Solitary Confinement Facts and Statistics." (Jan. 16, 2017) http://infographicworld.com/blogs/solitary-confinement-facts/
- Johnson, Carrie and Bill Chappell. "Solitary Confinement Costs $78K Per Inmate And Should Be Curbed, Critics Say." National Public Radio. Feb. 25, 2014. (Jan. 25, 2017) http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2014/02/25/282672593/solitary-confinement-costs-78k-per-inmate-and-should-be-curbed-critics-say
- Kaba, Fatos, et al. "Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates." American Journal of Public Health. March 2014. (Jan. 25, 2017) http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301742
- Manson, Joshua. "UN Report Compares Solitary Confinement Practices in the U.S. and Around the World." Solitary Watch. Oct. 28, 2016. (Jan. 16, 2017) http://solitarywatch.com/2016/10/28/un-report-compares-solitary-confinement-practices-around-the-world/
- Moore, Rowan. "Albert Woodfox: 'I choose to use my anger as a means for changing things.'" The Guardian. Oct. 23, 2016. (Jan. 23, 2017) https://www.theguardian.com/news/2016/oct/23/albert-woodfox-interview-released-angola-three-louisiana-state-penitentiary
- Ordway, Denise-Marie and John Wihbey. "Solitary confinement in prisons: Key data and research findings." Journalist's Resource. Jan. 26, 2016. (Jan. 14, 2017)
- Penal Reform. "Solitary confinement." (Jan. 16, 2017) https://www.penalreform.org/priorities/prison-conditions/key-facts/solitary-confinement/
- The Guardian. "What is solitary confinement?" April 27, 2016. (Jan. 14, 2017) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/27/what-is-solitary-confinement
- The White House. "FACT SHEET: Department of Justice Review of Solitary Confinement." Jan. 25, 2016. (Jan. 23, 2017) https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/01/25/fact-sheet-department-justice-review-solitary-confinement