How Presidential Pardons Work


Lots More Information

Related HowStuffWorks Articles

More Great Links

Sources

  • "Andrew Johnson: Proclamation of Amnesty and Pardon for the Confederate States." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9116918/Document-Andrew-Johnson-Proclamation-of-Amnesty-and-Pardon-for-the-Confederate-States.
  • "Argentina revokes general's pardon." The China Post. July 15, 2007.http://www.chinapost.com.tw/international/115083.htm
  • "Basil Brashir case, document 1." Lincoln Archives. http://www.lincolnarchives.us/index.php?sub=/specialfeatures/national_archives/rg204&act=rg204entry10_aobryan&left_nav=left_nav_subscription&header=header_1860
  • "Biography of James Garfield." The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/jg20.html
  • "Biography of William Henry Harrison." The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wh9.html
  • "Bush faces no-win pressures to pardon Cheney aide." Bloomberg.com. June 29, 2007.http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=a9Ky8sNLw1fw&refer=us
  • "Clinton pardons: Cast of characters." BBC. News. "February 22, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1184118.stm
  • "Congress's power to compel." Washington Post. July 21, 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/20/AR2007072001802.html
  • "Constitutional topic: Presidential pardons." The U.S. Constitution Online. http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_pard.html
  • "Executive clemency." Legal-Explanations.com. http://www.legal-explanations.com/definitions/executive-clemency.htm.
  • "CRS annotated Constitution." Cornell University. Law.Cornell.edu. http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/html/art2frag13_user.html
  • "Federalist No 74." TheAvalon Project at Yale Law School. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/federal/fed74.htm.
  • "IPI urges for presidential pardon of Polish editor-in-chief." International Press Institute. June 28, 2007. http://www.freemedia.at/cms/ipi/statements_detail.html?ctxid=CH0055&docid=CMS1183035522690
  • "Lt. Henry O. Flipper's quest for justice." National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/henry_o_flipper/
  • "Lt. Henry Ossian Flipper, U.S. Army 1856-1940." U.S. Army Center of Military History. Army.mil. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/topics/afam/flipper.htm/
  • "Pardon us: Systematic Presidential Pardons." Federal Sentencing Reporter. Caliber.UCPress.net. 2000-2001. http://caliber.ucpress.net/doi/pdfplus/10.1525/fsr.2000.13.3-4.139
  • "President Bush's Pardons." History News Network. January 24, 2005. http://hnn.us/articles/9331.html
  • "Presidential Character and Executive Clemency: A Re-Examination." Northern Illinois University. http://www.rvc.cc.il.us/faclink/pruckman/pardoncharts/Paper6.pdf
  • "Presidential clemency actions by administration." Department of Justice. http://www.usdoj.gov/pardon/actions_administration.htm#truman
  • "Presidential Pardons." University of California Berkeley. March 2001. http://igs.berkeley.edu/library/pardon.html
  • "Schick v. Reed, 419 U.S. 256 (1974)." Justia. http://supreme.justia.com/us/419/256/case.html
  • "Standards for the consideration of clemency pardons." Department of Justice. http://www.usdoj.gov/pardon/petitions.htm
  • "Supreme Court collection: Ex parte Grossman." Cornell University.http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0267_0087_ZO.html
  • "Ten most notorious presidential pardons: Jimmy Hoffa." Time. Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/2007/presidential_pardons/3.html
  • "The Constitution and impeachment." University of Missouri-Kansas City. Law.UMKC.edu http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/constitution.html
  • "The Marc Rich case: A Primer." Time. Time.com. February 13, 2001. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,99302,00.html
  • "The Most Controversial Pardons Ever. Associated Content. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/302424/the_most_controversial_presidential.html
  • "U.S. Constitution - Article 2 Section 2." The U.S. Constitution Online. http://www.usconstitution.net/xconst_A2Sec2.html
  • "U.S. Supreme Court Schick v. Reed 419 U.S. 256 (1974). Justia.com. http://supreme.justia.com/us/419/256/case.html
  • "U.S. Supreme Court Ex parte Garland, 71 U.S. 333 (1866). Find Law. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=71&invol=333
  • The Handbook of Texas Online. TSHA. http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/FF/ffl13.html

More to Explore