When talking about ending human trafficking, the U.S. State Department and the United Nations emphasize a "3P approach." The 3 P's are prevention, prosecution and protection. As we've discussed in this article, prosecutions of traffickers have remained low. The U.S. and the U.N. recognize that until traffickers realize that there are dangerous consequences for their actions, they will continue to engage in trafficking.
We've also discussed how protection for victims has been limited. In their latest report on human trafficking, the State Department explains how countries are more likely to offer victims the 3 D's: detention, deportation and disempowerment. Instead of seeing victims as people who need help and who engaged in illegal activity against their will, society sees them as criminals who are in the country illegally. Victims might be jailed or deported, but once they're released or back in their home countries, they usually end up in the hands of their traffickers once again. Aid groups urge a case-by-case analysis regarding whether a victim should be deported, and the U.S. offers T-visas for people who ended up in the country as a result of trafficking.
Prevention is perhaps the hardest "P" to conquer. Though aid groups and governments have engaged in many public-awareness campaigns so that people don't unwittingly become victims, more needs to be done. There's discussion about whether human trafficking can be eliminated without eliminating poverty around the world; there are reasons, after all, why someone leaves a small village in a developing country to come to an industrialized one. Eradication of poverty, however, is no easy feat, and some critics wonder if it would make any difference when it comes to human trafficking.
There are no easy answers, which can be frustrating. But, in his 2008 book on modern slavery, "A Crime So Monstrous," author Benjamin Skinner offered three solutions for what ordinary people can do to stop human trafficking. First, he said, people must educate themselves about trafficking. Second, they should put pressure on elected officials and candidates for office about what steps they'd take to solve the problem, as well as what new ideas they can bring to the table. Lastly, Skinner urged supporting advocacy groups such as Free the Slaves and Anti-Slavery International [source: Wallace].
You've taken the first step that Skinner suggests by reading this article, but if you'd like more information about the problem of human trafficking, take a look at the links below.
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- BBC News. "A modern slave's brutal odyssey." Nov. 3, 2004. (April 26, 2011)http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/europe/3979725.stm
- Berger, Joseph. "Despite Law, Few Trafficking Arrests." The New York Times. Dec. 3, 2009. (April 26, 2011)http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/04/nyregion/04trafficking.html
- Feingold, David A. "Human Trafficking." Foreign Policy. September/October 2005.
- Gonzalez, David. "When American Dream Leads to Servitude." The New York Times. April 24, 2007. (April 26, 2011)http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/24/nyregion/24citywide.html
- Heinrich, Mark. "Many countries ignore human trafficking: UN." Reuters. Feb. 12, 2009. (April 26, 2011)http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/02/12/us-un-trafficking-idUSTRE51B5CB20090212?feedType=RSS&feedName=lifestyleMolt
- Kristof, Nicholas D. "A Woman. A Prostitute. A Slave." The New York Times. Nov. 27, 2010. (April 26, 2011)http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/28/opinion/28kristof.html
- Kristof, Nicholas D. "What about American Girls Sold on the Streets?" The New York Times. April 23, 2011. (April 26, 2011)http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/24/opinion/24kristof.html
- Landesman, Peter. "The Girls Next Door." The New York Times. Jan. 25, 2004. (April 23, 2011)http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/25/magazine/25SEXTRAFFIC.html
- Madslien, Jorn. "Sex trade's reliance on forced labour." BBC News. May 12, 2005. (April 26, 2011)http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/business/4532617.stm
- Markon, Jerry. "Human Trafficking Evokes Outrage, Little Evidence." The Washington Post. Sept. 23, 2007. (April 26, 2011)http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/22/AR2007092201401_pf.html
- Mendenhall, Preston. "Infiltrating Europe's shameful trade in human beings." MSNBC. (April 26, 2011)http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3071965/
- NewsMax.com Wires. "Millions Suffer in Sex Slavery." April 24, 2001. (April 26, 2011)http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/4/23/184354.shtml
- Seki, Akira. "Human trafficking: A rising tide in Asia." The New York Times. July 20, 2002. (April 26, 2011)http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/20/opinion/20iht-edakira_ed3_.html
- Shafer, Jack. "Sex Slaves of West 43rd Street." Slate. Jan. 26, 2004. (April 26, 2011)http://www.slate.com/id/2094414/
- Shafer, Jack. "Doubting Landesman." Slate. Jan. 24, 2004. (April 26, 2011)http://www.slate.com/id/2094502/
- Skinner, E. Benjamin. "South Africa's New Sex Trade and the Campaign to Stop It." Time. Jan. 18, 2010. (April 26, 2011)http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1952335,00.html
- Smith, Craig S. "Turkey's Growing Sex Trade Snares Many Slavic Women." The New York Times. June 26, 2005. (April 26, 2011)http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/26/international/europe/26turkey.html
- Swartz, Mimi. "The Lost Girls." Texas Monthly. April 2010. (April 26, 2011)http://www.texasmonthly.com/2010-04-01/feature3.php?click_code=25657b85c35383e863798cc50524ffce#
- United Nations Inter-agency Project on Human Trafficking. (April 26, 2011)http://www.no-trafficking.org/
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "About Human Trafficking." Administration for Children and Families. (April 26, 2011)http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/index.html
- U.S. Department of State. "Trafficking in Persons Report 2010." June 14, 2010. (April 26, 2011)http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2010/index.htm
- Wallace, Hannah. "Modern slaves." Salon. March 27, 2008. (April 26, 2011)http://www.salon.com/books/int/2008/03/27/slavery
- Williams, Rachel. "British-born teenagers being trafficked for sexual exploitation within UK, police say." The Guardian. July 3, 2008. (April 26, 2011)http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/jul/03/childprotection.internationalcrime
- Wu, Annie and Nicholas Zifcak. "US Ranked on Human Trafficking for First Time." The Epoch Times. June 15, 2010. (April 26, 2011)http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/37380/