Exile, the forcing of a person to leave his or her country or the voluntary absence of a person to escape punishment or persecution. Exile may be permanent or temporary. It usually does not involve loss of citizenship. It has been used since ancient times, mainly for political offenses.
Similar actions include banishment, deportation, expatriation, extradition, ostracism, and transportation.
Banishment is a general term covering all the others. It is the removal of a person from a country that may or may not be his or her own.
Deportation is the removal of a person who is not a citizen. It is often used to get rid of criminals.
Expatriation may mean the same as exile, but usually indicates that citizenship is lost as well.
Extradition is the deportation of an accused criminal at the request of another state or country.
Ostracism historically, was temporary banishment by popular vote in Greek city-states.
Transportation is the sending of a person out of the country to a penal colony.