Modern Caucuses and Primaries
The caucus process hasn't changed much at all since each party began nominating their choices for president at their national conventions in the early 19th century. In Iowa, for example, voters in each local precinct (there are 1,774) gather in gyms, bars and basements to openly discuss the presidential election, not just vote for a specific candidate [source: Praetorius]. Supporters give impassioned speeches on behalf of their candidate, attempting to sway the undecided folks in the room. Unlike primaries, caucuses are held at a specific time of the day, the only time when voters can cast their ballot. In fact, there don't even have to be official ballots. Local caucus organizers can simply call for a show of hands, or ask folks to divide into groups according to their candidate.
It's important to note that the results of local caucuses don't directly influence the proportion of delegates sent by each party to the national convention. Instead, delegates are chosen through a multi-stage, months-long process. In Iowa, for example, the precinct caucuses help to portion out delegates for the county conventions, which help to choose delegates for the district conventions, which vote to choose delegates for the state convention, which finally chooses the delegate distribution for the national convention. To further confuse matters, the Republican and Democratic Iowa caucuses each have different rules governing the distribution of delegates and whether or not votes cast in each stage of the process are even binding!
In the 2012 primary season, there are 20 scheduled Republican caucuses and 36 Republican primaries, including those in U.S. territories like Guam and American Samoa. Several states hold both a primary and caucuses, although only one of the contests results in the selection of delegates. Non-binding caucuses and primaries are sometimes called straw polls, or the more colorful term, "beauty contests" [source: Seelye]. Interestingly, even though President Barack Obama is assured to be the Democratic candidate in 2012, state Democratic parties still hold caucuses and primaries, mostly to show support for the sitting Democratic president and to choose the individual delegates for the Democratic National Convention [source: Washington State Democrats].
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